Your shoulder is the most flexible joint in your body. It allows you to place and rotate your arm in many positions in front, above, to the side, and behind your body. This flexibility also makes your shoulder susceptible to instability and injury.
How normal shoulder works?
The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint. It is made up of three bones: the upper arm bone (humerus), shoulder blade (scapula) and collarbone (clavicle). A smooth, durable surface (articular cartilage) on the head of the arm bone, and a thin inner lining (synovium) of the joint allows the smooth motion of the shoulder joint.
1) Bursitis or Tendinitis: Bursitis or tendinitis can occur with overuse from repetitive activities, such as swimming, painting, or weight lifting. these problems are treated by modifying the activity which causes the symptoms of pain and with a rehabilitation program for the shoulder.
2) Impingement and Partial Rotator Cuff Tears: Partial thickness rotator cuff tears can be associated with chronic inflammation and the development of spurs on the underside of the acromion or the acromioclavicular joint. Nonsurgical treatment is successful in a majority of cases. If it is not successful, surgery often is needed to remove the spurs on the underside of the acromion and to repair the rotator cuff.
3) Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Full-thickness rotator cuff tears are most often the result of impingement, partial thickness rotator cuff tears, heavy lifting, or falls. If pain continues, surgery may be needed to repair full- thickness rotator cuff tears.
4) Instability: Instability occurs when the head of the upper arm bone is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can happen as a result of sudden injury or from overuse of the shoulder ligaments.
Arthroscopy: Arthroscopy allows the orthopaedic surgeon to insert a pencil thin device with a small lens and lighting system into tiny incisions to look inside the joint. Know more about Arthroscopy here.
Open Surgery: Open surgery may be necessary and, in some cases, may be associated with better results than arthroscopy. Open surgery often can be done through small incisions of just a few inches. Recovery and rehabilitation is related to the type of surgery performed inside the shoulder, rather than whether there was an arthroscopic or open surgical procedure.
It is important that you continue a shoulder exercise program with daily stretching and strengthening. In general, patients who faithfully comply with the therapies and exercises prescribed by their orthopaedic surgeon and physical therapist will have the best medical outcome after surgery.
Your orthopaedic surgeon is a medical doctor with extensive training in the diagnosis and nonsurgical and surgical treatment of the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.